Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, established in 1880, is one of Japan’s oldest and most distinguished academic societies. The Society currently has around 18,000 members. It publishes three monthly scientific journals. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Chem. Pharm. Bull.) began publication in 1953 as Pharmaceutical Bulletin. It covers chemistry fields in the pharmaceutical and health sciences. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Biol. Pharm. Bull.) began publication in 1978 as the Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics. It covers various biological topics in the pharmaceutical and health sciences. A fourth Society journal, the Journal of Health Science, was merged with Biol. Pharm. Bull. in 2012. Yakugaku Zasshi (Japanese for “Pharmaceutical Science Journal”) has the longest history, with publication beginning in 1881. Yakugaku Zasshi is published mostly in Japanese, except for some articles related to clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical education, which are published in English.
The main aim of the Society’s journals is to advance the pharmaceutical sciences with research reports, information exchange, and high-quality discussion. The average review time for articles submitted to the journals is around one month for first decision. The complete texts of all of the Society’s journals can be freely accessed through J-STAGE. The Society’s editorial committee hopes that the content of its journals will be useful to your research, and also invites you to submit your own work to the journals.

Chairman of Committee
Ken-ichi Hosoya
Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama



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27,061 registered articles
(updated on November 22, 2017)
Online ISSN : 1347-5223
Print ISSN : 0009-2363
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Volume 65 (2017) Issue 11 Pages 1058-1077
Discovery of a Novel Series of Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-Based Phosphodiesterase 2A Inhibitors Structurally Different from N-((1S)-1-(3-Fluoro-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-2-methoxyethyl)-7-methoxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydropyrido[2,3-b]pyrazine-4(1H)-carboxamide (TAK-915), for the Treatment of Cognitive Disorders

It has been hypothesized that selective inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 2A could potentially be a novel approach to treat cognitive impairment in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders through augmentation of cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways in brain regions associated with learning and memory. Following our earlier work, this article describes a drug design strategy for a new series of lead compounds structurally distinct from our clinical candidate 2 (TAK-915), and subsequent medicinal chemistry efforts to optimize potency, selectivity over other PDE families, and other preclinical properties including in vitro phototoxicity and in vivo rat plasma clearance. These efforts resulted in the discovery of N-((1S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)propyl)-6-methyl-5-(3-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-3-carboxamide (20), which robustly increased 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in the rat brain following an oral dose, and moreover, attenuated MK-801-induced episodic memory deficits in a passive avoidance task in rats. These data provide further support to the potential therapeutic utility of PDE2A inhibitors in enhancing cognitive performance.

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This article describes the discovery of a new class of lead compound 5 by combining structural features from previously disclosed two chemotypes, represented by 3 and 4, and subsequent medicinal chemistry efforts to optimize potency, PDE selectivity, and other preclinical properties including in vitro phototoxicity and in vivo rat plasma clearance. These efforts culminated in the identification of 20, which demonstrated significant elevation of cGMP levels in rat brains, and moreover, attenuated MK-801-induced episodic memory deficits in a passive avoidance task in rats. These data provide further support to the potential therapeutic utility of PDE2A inhibitors in enhancing cognitive performance.

Volume 65 (2017) Issue 11 Pages 1051-1057
Novel Non-steroidal Progesterone Receptor Ligands Based on m-Carborane Containing a Secondary Alcohol: Effect of Chirality on Ligand Activity

The progesterone receptor (PR) controls various physiological processes, including the female reproductive system, and nonsteroidal PR ligands are considered to be drug candidates for treatment of various diseases without significant adverse effects. Here, we designed and synthesized m-carborane-based secondary alcohols and investigated their PR-ligand activity. All the synthesized alcohols exhibited PR-antagonistic activity at subnanomolar concentration. Among them, alcohols having a small alkyl side chain and a 4-cyanophenyl group also exhibited PR-agonistic activity in a relatively high concentration range. Optical resolution of secondary alcohols having a methyl side chain was performed, and the PR-ligand activity and PR-binding affinity of the purified enantiomers were examined. The chirality of the secondary alcohol appears to have a more significant influence on PR-agonistic activity than on antagonistic activity.

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The authors designed and synthesized m-carborane-based secondary alcohols and investigated their PR-ligand activity. All the synthesized alcohols exhibited PR-antagonistic activity at subnanomolar concentration. Among them, alcohols having a small alkyl side chain and a 4-cyanophenyl group, such as 7a, also exhibited PR-agonistic activity in a relatively high concentration range. Optical resolution of secondary alcohols having a methyl side chain was performed, and the PR-ligand activity and PR-binding affinity of the purified enantiomers were examined. The chirality of the secondary alcohol appears to have a more significant influence on PR-agonistic activity than on antagonistic activity.

Volume 65 (2017) Issue 11 Pages 1035-1044
Gelation Factors of Pectin for Development of a Powder Form of Gel, Dry Jelly, as a Novel Dosage Form

Jellies for oral administration are dosage forms that contain water, as stipulated in the Japanese Pharmacopeia, and heat is generally applied to the jellies during the manufacturing process. Therefore, it is difficult to formulate drugs that may be affected adversely by water and/or heat. To solve this problem, we tried to develop a powder form of gel as a novel dosage form (dry jelly: jelly medicine extemporaneously prepared) that is converted to jelly after addition of water at the time of administration. For this purpose, a basic gel formulation consisting of pectin, glucono-δ-lactone, dibasic calcium phosphate hydrate, and sucrose was investigated to evaluate the critical factors affecting gelation phenomena. The gel form was developed by adjusting the amount of each component of the formulation and of water added. Gelation occurred even with hard water containing metal ions (hardness of approximately 304 mg/L), and no changes in gel hardness occurred. The desired gel hardness could be controlled by adjusting the amount of water. The gel hardness changed over time after the addition of water, but this change did not affect the dissolution behavior of drugs formulated in the dry jelly.

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Editor’s picks

Jellies for oral administration are dosage forms that contain water and heat is generally applied to the jellies during the manufacturing process. Therefore, it is difficult to formulate drugs that may be affected adversely by water and/or heat. To solve this problem, the authors develop a powder form of gel as a novel dosage form (dry jelly) that is converted to gel after addition of water at the time of administration. The concept of dry jelly gelation by water addition is shown in graphical abstract. In the article, the critical factors affecting gelation phenomena as well as physical and drug dissolution properties of the gel prepared from drug-containing dry jelly are evaluated.

Volume 65 (2017) Issue 11 Pages 1028-1034
Effect of Magnesium Stearate Mono- and Dihydrate Dispersibilities on Physical Properties of Tablets

Magnesium stearate (MgSt), an essential lubricant in the manufacturing of tablets, is available in several hydrate forms with different qualities that affect the physical properties of tablets. This study examined MgSt mono- and dihydrates, and their effects on tablet dissolution, disintegration, and hardness. These effects were examined in terms of surface free energy and dispersibility. Dissolution, disintegration, and hardness were evaluated for tablets manufactured from powder mixtures of each MgSt hydrate form and other components, including ethenzamide as an active ingredient, using different mixing times. The surface energy was evaluated for MgSt mono- or dihydrate powder mixtures with a surface tensiometer. For dispersibility, the adhesion states of MgSt hydrates to other components were visually observed via near-infrared (NIR) chemical imaging. The dispersion behavior of MgSt hydrates was examined by quantitative evaluation of skewness and kurtosis of histograms, based on NIR images, and domain size estimated from their binary images. It was found that changes in those parameters related to dispersibility and dissolution differed between MgSt hydrates. This suggests that the quantitative determination of dispersibility of MgSt using NIR chemical imaging is a useful methodology for improving the understanding of tablet manufacturing blending processes.

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Editor’s picks

Magnesium stearate (MgSt), an essential lubricant in the manufacturing of tablets, is available in several hydrate forms with different qualities that affect the physical properties of tablets. This article examined MgSt mono- and dihydrates, and their effects on tablet dissolution, disintegration, and hardness were examined in terms of surface free energy and dispersibility. It was found that changes in those parameters related to dispersibility and dissolution differed between MgSt hydrates. This suggests that the quantitative determination of dispersibility of MgSt using NIR-CI is a useful methodology for improving the understanding of tablet manufacturing blending processes.

Volume 65 (2017) Issue 11 Pages 1004-1010
Protection of Tong-Qiao-Huo-Xue Decoction against Cerebral Ischemic Injury through Reduction Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability

Tong-Qiao-Huo-Xue Decoction (TQHXD) is a classical prescription in traditional Chinese medicine treating blood stagnation in the head and facial channels, especially cerebral ischemia. We investigate the effect of TQHXD on the expressions of related proteins of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and analysis of constituents in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on cerebral ischemic model rats. Here, we demonstrate that TQHXD protected the hippocampus neurons, reduced the opening of tight junction (TJ) and decreased the permeability of BBB by up-regulating ZO-1, occludin, claudin-5 expressions, down-regulating aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expressions. Meanwhile, we detected Muscone, ligustilide and hydroxysafflor yellow A in CSF on cerebral ischemic model rats. These compounds could be identified as the main active ingredients of TQHXD on protecting the damaged BBB. These results suggest that TQHXD could act as a potential neuroprotective agent against BBB damage for cerebral ischemia.

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Editor’s picks

The authors investigate the effect of TQHXD on the expressions of related proteins of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and analysis of constituents in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on cerebral ischemic rats. They found that TQHXD could up-regulate ZO-1, occludin, claudin-5 expressions and down-regulate AQP-4, MMP-9 expressions. Moreover, muscone, ligustilide and hydroxysafflor yellow A in CSF were also detected. These compounds could be identified as the main active ingredients of TQHXD on protecting the damaged BBB.

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